link to JianShu

Selenium is only a library, and as such it does not particularly care if you are running it on a system that is equipped with a GUI. What you are probably asking is: If I use Selenium to open a browser, is that browser going to work on a system with no GUI. The answer to this is: it depends!

There are headless browsers: browsers that also do not have a GUI component. HtmlUnit is packaged with Selenium. Another popular browser is PhantomJS, which has third-party Selenium bindings library called GhostDriver. Personally I would avoid both of these! HtmlUnit uses a JavaScript engine that none of the current desktop browsers support, and as such the tests are not very reliable. GhostDriver has not been maintained for 2 years, and as such also makes for unreliable results. PahntomJS is definitely an option, as it uses WebKit - the engine that is in Safari and Chrome browsers, but you would have to write your own API.

Most systems will allow you to have a virtual GUI. You mentioned Ubuntu, which is a Debian derivative. There are several tutorials on the Net that tell you how to install Xvfb, most of which are incomplete or wrong. On a Debian you install a headless browser like this:

  1. Install Xvfb: apt-get install xvfb
  2. Install a browser. Assuming you are using a Debian server, you will not be able to install something like Firefox with apt-get, because the repositories are not present. Instead Google something like “Firefox off-line install”, or whatever browser you want to use, and then use wget on your server to grab the package.
  3. Unpack the package somewhere like /usr/local/lib, and then create a soft link from /usr/local/bin to the binary that launches the browser.
  4. Now try launching your browser headless. For example, for Firefox you would try: xvfb-run firefox. This may produce some errors, which you have to fix. In my case, I was missing the library libdbus-glib-1-2 which I could install just using apt-get.
  5. At this point you will need to launch Xvfb before running your Selenium tests. Most CI servers have a plugin for Xvfb, or you can do it from the command line: Xvfb :99 &. See the docs for additional information.

sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install -y unzip xvfb libxi6 libgconf-2-4


sudo apt install ./google-chrome-stable_current_amd64.deb
google-chrome --version
Google Chrome 80.0.3987.122

chrome headless 模式


mv chromedriver /usr/bin/chromedriver

chromedriver --version
ChromeDriver 80.0.3987.106 (f68069574609230cf9b635cd784cfb1bf81bb53a-refs/branch-heads/3987@{#882})

google-chrome --headless --disable-gpu --screenshot
[0226/] Running as root without --no-sandbox is not supported. See
➜  ~ google-chrome --headless --disable-gpu --no-sandbox  --screenshot
[0226/] Written to file screenshot.png.

System.setProperty("", "/usr/bin/chromedriver");
ChromeOptions chromeOptions = new ChromeOptions();

WebDriver driver = new ChromeDriver(chromeOptions);



if (driver.getPageSource().contains("hao")) {
} else {
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